There’s nothing either good or bad but thinking makes it so. Someone once said.
Holger Schott Syme doesn’t like OP. In fact he micturates vinaigre over the whole concept. It’s uncertain from his blog post if he’s ever seen any. Holger is an Early Modern Scholar and I personally respect his work. He’s also a big fan of the Deutsche Buhne i.e. the German stage and theatre and bemoans the fact that other countries don’t invest as much in theatre as they do. Hear, hear.
Of course I can now fill this blog post with my reply to his whilst it is under moderation. But the reply has been approved and DC has chimed in with his response and a dialogue is building.
Did you see the latest OP production at the SWP? Have you ever seen an OP production? Are you annoyed that the Globe and its staging of OP productions has taken precedence over your attempts in theatrical historiography? How long since you took a voice class to discover different nuances within your own registers?
Where’s your sense of discovery Holger? It’s all a bit; ‘been there, done that’ sounding.
I quite agree that OP will never re-create the conditions of an Elizabethan actor for ALL the reasons you stated. Be it the Queen’s men or the Globe’s. Linguistic and spatial essentialism are new to me, though they seem to confine monarchical concepts in a tiny room.
Your post smacks of reductionism across the different fields. In acting you deny the voice of response to the practice. In directing you belittle the pretenders that dare to bring that which never was. In practice you squeeze any form of discovery into a faulty template for past causality.
And yet the essential aspect of Original Practice is simply theatrical exploration. Original Pronunciation offers a sound system approximating Early Modern English. This sound system united a disparate group of actors with very different regional and national accents. It was a very exciting and visceral experience for those of us who took part because of that alterity.
But hey maybe we’re all fooling ourselves right? The exigencies of theatrical practice in Elizabethan times were dictated by the societal conditions. The fact that actors used cue-scripts had no effect on the writers who knew they did because time, money, lack of paper is the over-riding factor here. Those writers never married their instruction of character into such a part, which then tied back into the whole.
The idea of OP isn’t fixed. There are no rules to go by. Otherwise Renaissance Fairs would have done this work years ago. What we explored was how to create an ensemble working within the strictures of cue-script and the new-old accent of OP to see what the results would be. Those results surprised us and the audience. And in the Q&A afterwards objections like your own were addressed. However that does not negate the experience no matter how much you may pooh-pooh it.
Ahistorical nonsense or no. You are the one claiming equivalence. As a practitioner my feet are firmly planted on that stage giving the best damn performance i can under the conditions that present themselves that night in that place and time. And the next night whether those conditions of place and type of venue have changed or not. Proscenium arch, or thrust, or living room, or bar, or wherever it be. Actors don’t get to choose too often the concepts that are forced on them. And the amount of rubbish I’ve heard about RP and Shakespeare, willst du nicht wissen. I’m not in any kind of denial about OP, or RP, oder Buhne-Sprache. Bring back the repertory system if we can.
But deny OP? Deny the world of theatre. And box it to be poked at and compartmentalised and scorned. You are not alone Holger. Many scholars think the way you do. Let’s hope the actors and directors don’t.
There are other slightly dissenting voices from those who actually experienced it, like Eoin Price here and Lady M here. And the twittysphere responded too.
So OP attracts attention and the scholars and theatre world need to deal with it. Because we the practitioners are going to keep on doing it. And if we can do it in theatres like the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse that’s just schweet!
Ben on the deck. Will on the balcony. SWP being pretty all around us.
The comment I posted was replied to by Holger Schott Syme on his rather excellent blog.
And commendably DC carries on the dialogue without descending into ad hominems as We are wont to do.
So much fun to be able to say I played the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse. As did one of our cast Natalie the other morning on the tube when someone asked why she was carrying a baby basket. It’s a prop for a show she said. What in some church hall? No, in the Globe. The reply, Oh.
Obviously she really meant the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse but who knows what that is. The actors do. The directors and producers do. It’s gaining recognition and the word is out on what it’s like to play it. Attitudes about it vary from the bloody uncomfortable of the Kirkville reviews to the oh they’re doing lots of really good music stuff there.
Well we can say we played it twice already with two very different shows. And as I said to our master of the book, Rob the other day who cares how uncomfortable a theatre is as long as the show blows you away. The Globe is one of the most friendly theatres on the block btw with wheel chair access and facilities, even for the SWP. And yes, the pit is positioned with benches facing each other. Anyway audiences immediately angle themselves appropriately to the stage and indeed there are no backs on the front three rows.
My first two hours traffic with this stage happened on the 25th June. We were given a gracious introduction by Patrick and then left in the capable hands of the head of events at Globe Ed, Adam and the candlelician Tony. Allowed free access we explore the length and breadth of the stage, the sight lines, the aural capacities of the room.
Discovery numero uno and most important was the corridor the width of the tiring house door, in which you are visible by everyone in the house. Venture too far stage left or right and for some audience members, you disappear.
Discovery numero due and equally important, the acoustics are fantastic. No need to shout or project anywhere. The voice spreads out and up and wrappingly caresses back at you. Kinda like the stage at the Old Vic, but obviously smaller. The all wood interior in this respect is your friend. One wonders how it will sound once the wood is soaked with voice.
The second aspect being that consonants are of utmost importance. The vowel carries the emotion and the room is emotionally vibrant.
The real test of a room as all performers know is playing it.
The tenth of july was my birthday, and at the same age Shakespeare was when he died, I participated in a David Crystal lecture. If you don’t know DC, a little research will pruv his warth. Suffice to say he is the new (old) voice of OP. His voice on other language matters needs 3 small letters, OBE. I’ve worked stages and rooms mostly in NL for some 20 years now but DC brings a confidence to the lecture room few will achieve. He likes the off-beat humourous approach too.
Here’s the platt of the evening:
Preface to the First Folio, by Ben Jonson
DC Introduction to Original Pronunciation
Love’s Labour’s Lost
Sir John Harington – new design of privy published in 1596 under the title A new discourse of a stale svbject, called the metamorphosis of Ajax.
As You Like It.
As You Like It.
Troilus and Cressida.
Two Gentlemen of Verona.
Midsummer Night’s Dream.
10 examples of last lines: Taming of the Shrew Merry Wives of Windsor King Lear Hamlet Romeo and Juliet Troilus and Cressida H4pt1 H5
Henry the Fifth.
Richard the Second.
Heminge and Condell, introduction to Folio.
Just yesterday the 17th July we played an evening of Songs and Sonnets in OP.
Here’s the Platt for that:
Dad, Will, Ben – LLL & OP
#Will He Not Come Again#
Sonnet 20 – Girls
#Come Away Death#
#Hey Nonny Nonny#
#Fear No More
#ENCORE – Rain it raineth#
Ben wanted to keep the ensemble on its toes to work the cue script process. Everyone had chosen a sonnet that resonated with them. The day before we had finished working the nuts and bolts of the sonnets analysing the form from phonetic and metrical standpoints.
Then Ben worked their contents with incredibly personal results. Seeing as catharsis is the actor’s business, witnessing such in rehearsal without it descending into therapy is gratifying. Information and choices are an actor’s vocabulary and the more we have of both, the better the results.
Those results were explored further during the performance on the 17th in an ordering determined on the spur of the moment. What was fixed were the songs composed by Hazel and her sister. And Sam Amidon a US folk artist, who brought another flavour of folksiness to the songs composition. We sang sonnet 29 to his scoring and boy did it read. Our finale song was Feste’s and with the whole ensemble behind us I felt supported and grateful.
The room when you play it has three god spots. Two on the deck: one downstage centre and the other upstage centre; and one on the balcony, dead centre. You lean back and…
Just got the call ‘Theatre about to go dark’! here at the Sam Wanamaker Playhouse. Hugely no-real-words-for-it exciting to be in this space today and tomorrow for the sonnet performance at 7pm then saturday at 12 noon for a tech/dress/first try-out of Macbeth and sunday 7pm full read/performance of Macbeth with full complement of cast (4 pros who aren’t part of the ensemble and 16 ensemble whereof 4 or five have other jobs and aren’t always there).
Learning hand over fist about staging and ensemble work. The candlelician (seriously that’s the candle tech’s name) is lowering the chandeliers (sorry candleliers) to different heights for the candle tech run through. The cast is in the audience area spread over the two tiers, either learning lines or songs, or capturing photos which we are strictly contract breakingly NOT allowed to make public.
Our superbly chillax contact from the Globe, Colette is hanging on her computer in the pit. Conveniently out of the way of Stage manager Mike, director Rob and our Ben overseeing the candle-abracadabra but close enough to facilitate when necessary.
The Globe itself is full mid-season with Julius Caesar sold out and Lupercalial feasting in the lobby as audience arrives. The education department is in a separate building over towards the Rose Theatre and provides a constant stream of school kids being introduced to Shakes and capable faculty and actors teaching them. Hail Patrick.
It’s so normal to gush about fellow players and the mutual appreciation society can quickly tilt into factions and cliques. I want to gush about Nick, Alex, Helena, Daiva, and Katrina all recent graduates of E15. Warren, Natalie, and Diana all ensemble members since the inception, Adam, Matthew, John, english yorkshire scottish men with 3 different physiques and skill sets. Reuben, oh Reuben. That’s you named. The rest have been named in previous posts. But what’s in a name?
Just broke off writing because the three wayward sisters hauntingly searched for each other in song (thrice to thine and thrice to mine). Palpable through earphones, one tentatively calling from the pit. Another answered from stage right through the audience and a third through the Up Stage Left door. Spooky and goose bumpy.
And there it is again. That cry. It’s going dark it’s going dark!
Many years ago in Cafe Quelle, Amsterdam I did a sunday afternoon performance in drag. A fruitless 20 minute search for a photo documentation will no doubt please many of our readers. And disappoint a few too. Trust me she was fruity.
The subject was sonnets and I had made hardboard cut-outs of my shadow with eye and heart added.
The performance space was tightly packed and volunteers had joined on stage to be put through their paces and be recited to. Then I started on sonnet 30:
WHen to the Sessions of sweet silent thought,
I summon up remembrance of things past,
I sigh the lack of many a thing I sought,
And with old woes new wail my dear time’s waste:
Then can I drown an eye (unus’d to flow)
For precious friends hid in death’s dateless night,
And weep afresh love’s long since cancell’d woe,
And moan th’expense of many a vanish’d sight.
Then can I grieve at grievances foregone,
And heavily from woe to woe tell o’er
The sad account of fore-bemoaned moan,
Which I new pay as if not paid before.
But if the while I think on thee (dear friend)
All losses are restor’d, and sorrows end.
That sixth line (Henry) hit home like an emotional ton of bricks and that old familiar catch in the throat choked out ‘death’s dateless night’. And by ‘weep afresh’ I was inwardly weeping and outwardly trying to save my neophyte sonneteer’s butt. After the performance finished my friend Mark P. tall south african albino laughed at me saying ‘he got you there, eh bru?’
Today in rehearsal our ensemble went through their sonnet paces on a chosen sonnet that resonated with them. Everyone had been mechanick-ed using the nuts and bolts of the form by yours truly yesterday. The content being Ben’s domain today. The full complement of players for thursday night happily being fourteen. So we started with Aslam and sonnet 97. Not an easy sonnet but boy did he nail it with an emotional honesty. Which set the tone and the bar for the rest of us.
Ben’s methodology is intuitive and specific to the person speaking it. The stick work we do daily provides an outside focus, which to my mind represents the actor’s text. The person taking the stick for a walk is the driving force. What happens when taking the stick for a walk whether alone or with another, or being shadowed while doing so, or having your stick stolen from you, or giving it to another party, or accepting another stick and walking with two, or chaining up as three or four or five, is where the magic happens. There is no pattern, there are no rules, though there are plenty of discoveries.
Adam got up to do sonnet 30. He delivered it fine and well first time out of the gate. A successful emotionally connected rendition any actor would be proud of. Don’t forget this verse is two days old in his mind. YET every actor knows that in the heat of the crucible and forced to go out of their comfort zone, their memory of that carefully memorised sonnet will start to smell like an anchovy. Sure enough Ben had him fighting for his words soon as he could misplace ‘vanished’. Repeated chasings of another who wouldn’t listen to him around the rehearsal space had him chewing the floorboards in frustration.
Then once that maelstrom of activity ceased and he just delivered the sonnet to the ensemble gathered closely around him with a personal honesty and depth that each line resonated back story or created it in my listening mind. Line six once again played its magic and broke him. And me too, as years have gone by and many more precious friends are now hid in death’s dateless night. (espen greger hagen rip)
That was 2 of 14 amazing personal sonnet journeys today. Those emotional hook-ups are not what the show is about because that would be just indulgent and onanistic to subject an audience to that. A personal and honest accounting is what the show is about. Getting to that point is what rehearsals are for. And every actor knows it. And wishes he or she were a part of doing that.
Time has stopped existing in a linear fashion. Dream time is happening. And you’ll never understand, until you stand where I stand.
How does OP affect singing and reciting?
It’s becoming increasingly clear that OP is the great leveller of the Shakespeare playing field. By that I mean a possible re-exploration of the canon without resorting to conceptual renewal, be it sci-fi, zombie, colonial plantation.
The OP accent is not about historical revisionism. (An utterly impossible task anyway you look at it. And more so, thanks to literary theory and criticism of the late 20thC). It is about re-connecting with the words: with the energies and synergies inherent in the phrasing, the puns, the rhymes.
Firstly it offers a re-calculating of the folio and quarto texts. (What constitutes a final text? How does cutting a play affect the original piece? What is then the original play)?
Secondly it asks for a re-visiting of accepted emendations by generations of scholars. (not that they are necessarily wrong or bad in any way. Does the punctuation play a part in the rhythm of an actor’s part)?
Lastly it begs a re-interpretation of the purpose of playing Shakespeare. (Is he really an untouchable cultural demi-god author? Or do these plays, does this play live only in the lines of the characters and their necessary interaction)?
But OP is strongest in levelling the playing field on a global scale in the realm of accent. RP will continue to be the accent of the English stage ie British English theatre elite. (and ffs it is a wonderfully expressive accent, despite it’s lack of balls). Australian, New Zealand, American, Canadian actors, to name but four of the direct recipients of RP as THE standard for speaking Shakespeare, now have a choice of another accent closer to the first soundings of these words and phrases. And in that accent lies a new sense of discovery about how to interpret these same.
Not better, not re-creating an unachievable lost past, just a choice using their accent to produce a new OP accent; in their town or city’s Original Practice using cue-script acting and original pronunciation. The old accent meets the new digitised world. The new-old accent creates an old-new performance language. A language nota bene, which informed those same-different English accents in the first place.
It occurs to me we have been increasingly mentally mouthing these words, century after century. Deifying what is after all a sham. A travesty of a mockery. Words need to live and breathe in ever newer environs. Think on them as much as you want, yet speak these old words new, trippingly on your tongue, as well as reading them, again and again!
We are performing songs and sonnets at the Sam Wanamaker Theatre this thursday the 17th July. There may still be tickets available. If you don’t believe these written words, come and hear his, and decide for yourself. Show starts at 7pm.
It’s all about the formation of a Shakespeare Original Practice Ensemble. How do you train a disparate group of actors and gel them together? What are the principles that lay behind it?
So two days of ensemble rehearsal in the Poor School. I ache. In a good way. There are anywhere between 16-20 of us involved. So I’m not alone. (Ahl-own, his OP mouth-brain forming newer shapes). We range in experience from E15 students up to our name actors Hilton, Colin, and Joan. In between the experience range is from often on stage or acting for money to little stage time and jobs that make the money. The thing that unites us is a love for the craft.
We have a production crew; from the driving and steering Rebecca in her London office to Rob and Mike from the USA on the shop floor watching and recording our every move. As Patrick said, this is a read not dead happening, NOT a full production. And it’s NOT a full production. Ay, it seems Madam, but it isn’t. For that one would be paid full time wages and this ensemble is sponsored by those looking to further the Original practice. So we have Angels and we thank them. Some even have names like Eric and Steve. Others are merely benefactors. We also have our Master of Voice, David.
And while this has turned into a naming session I would be remiss to not state that of the man responsible for bringing OP back to the Globe way back in 2004. Thanks Tim. (And Mark. And Patrick).
And for those who always remain nameless yet whose efforts supporting us behind the scenes and from our homes, here are those comforting comfortless words, You know who you are!
No that’s the muscle ache. I need a bath. Because I’m going to the Globe in an hour. To spend all day rehearsing in the Sam Wanamaker Theatre. Putting into practice the discoveries of yesterday. Oh yes! And preparing for the performance on thurs evening the 10th July for which there are a few standing room only tickets left.
Today is my friend Ben’s birthday. I am so very happy he is my friend and able to withstand our (often into the wee hours, whisky fueled) Shakespearean discussions. I wish you enough, and want to say, Love and Thanks to this young man’s dedication and enthusiasm. Yesterday we stood together on the stage of the Sam Wanamaker indoor Theatre at the Globe. Then he went to tech run the OP Winter’s Tale with his students from E15. Today he’s being fight directed for Makkers. Here is his blog about Winter’s Tale in OP. If you are in London it would be wise to go and see this.
Tuesday, 24 June 2014
Winter’s Tale – 28th June-4th July
I’m currently directing Winter’s Tale for the E15 MA final project.
The remit given was: 90mins, in the round, ensemble, Shakespeare-deconstructed.
Being somewhat of a fan of simple, on-the-nose, straight-forward, non-concept Shakespeare, I was with it right up until the last one. But, always a fan of a challenge, and right before taking OP to the Globe’s new Sam Wanamaker Playhouse, I liked the idea of going to the other end of my comfort zone, and completely ripping Shakespeare apart while still working the rehearsal techniques I’ve been developing with my ensemble, which relies on solid verse speaking combined with an extensive physical methodology and attention to stagecraft.
Now, I’m used to cutting Shakespeare, but the extant play of Winter’s Tale is 3362 lines long.
Full of meaty, image-rich verse written at the height of Shakespeare’s metrical prowess the dialogue sparkles so close to speech, and the prose seems to be like prosaic verse, or poetic prose, like some parts of Pericles.
The accepted standard is 1,000 lines of Shakespeare spoken per hour, so after forming and training the ensemble, the challenge was to devise out 80 minutes (always nice to finish under time) out of the flu play, which meant we were allowed a maximum of 1100 lines or so.
Do we lose Bohemia? (yes, almost entirely)
How do we solve the bear? (we decided it should be scary…)
What do we do with the statue, when you’re in the round?
The last was a noodle-scratcher, but while prepping for the SWP events at the Globe next month, which will all be candlelit, I thought about how they would have solved the statue issue at the Blackfriars, back when Winter’s Tale was first performed.
It’s easier in a huge proscenium theatre. Put Hermione deep upstage, as far away from the audience as possible, and if she moves it’ll be imperceptible. But in the Blackfriars, or the Globe’s Sam Wanamaker, the slightest movement would read from the back row of the upper gallery.
But. It’s candlelit. The flickering light makes statues come alive, I thought.
So we’ve forged a rather beautiful, candle-lit, Tale, with a melting statue of wax. Continuing the exploration of the Chorus in modern Shakespeare over the last year, I’ve used the Chorus of Time to fracture the play, as we follow this tragedy-with-a-potentially-good-ending.
It opens on Saturday 28th in the Cockpit Theatre (north of Marylebone, central London) and plays on in rep until 4th July:
The Winter’s Tale, Cockpit Theatre.
Do please come if you can.
Posted by Ben Crystal at 14:14
Re-posted by William Sutton at 16:45 Amsterdam time.
Happy Birthday Ben!
Original Practice Macbeth blog post: part the third.
We left off by looking at the cue script for Banquo’s first entrance in Act 1 Scene 3.
And yet that cue script is printed and type-faced. An original cue-script would have been handwritten like this one for Edward Alleyne, a leading man of the Elizabethan stage.
Elizabethan actors had different parameters within which they worked.And there is no way we can go back and reproduce it. There was no Stanlavski, Strasberg, Adler, or Meisner type schools of thought attached to their acting. They had senses, memory, and imagination.
An actor given a cue script has no context, only text. The world of the character in the play represents a vacuum fed by cues. Using this definition of a vacuum then: an enclosed space (i.e. the world of the play) from which matter (relationship and context to others in the scene) has been partially removed (still have cues) so that the matter or gas remaining in the space exerts less pressure than the atmosphere.
The curious difference is re-learning how to learn your part. Normally we would read the whole play and then zoom in on our character’s needs and wants in relation to the other characters we interact with scene by scene. Analysing my character’s through line using all available information from the whole script and beyond.
Here with cue scripts, our own language or what we say becomes the focal point and how others think about us is left to onstage interaction. We can guess from the way we say things or how we construct what we are saying. However there is no framework of the entire scene. How much time happens in between our cues and response also is impossible to gauge. Or who exactly spoke the cue. Or how long they have been speaking and conversely we listening.
The focus, our focus, my focus is on my lines. And to speak them i need my cue. Other actors feed me those cues as I feed them theirs. To be an Elizabethan or Jacobean actor commences as a solitary act of preparation. The first step is exactly memorising those lines along with their cues.
Right now in my own process of learning Banquo I am terribly aware of his pronoun usage. When does he use ‘you’ as opposed to ‘thou’. Unsurprisingly in his interaction with Macbeth he switches from ‘you’ to ‘thou’ in act 3 in his opening soliloquy.
[III-1] Actus Tertius. Scena Prima.
Thou hast it now, King, Cawdor, Glamis, all,
As the weyard Women promis’d, and I feare
Thou playd’st most fowly for’t: yet it was saide
It should not stand in thy Posterity,
But that my selfe should be the Roote, and Father
Of many Kings. If there come truth from them,
As upon thee Macbeth, their Speeches shine,
Why by the verities on thee made good,
May they not be my Oracles as well,
And set me up in hope. But hush, no more.
His suspicions of his noble partner’s misdeeds are increasing, yet it’s only now that his own ambition is awakened. The more I read Banquo’s lines, the more conscious I am they would have been spoken in front of King James, who knew he was a descendant of Banquo.
Now compare those thou’s, thy’s, and thee’s, to his use of ‘your’, prior to the murder of the King in act 2 scene 1:
____________________________________ A Friend.
What Sir, not yet at rest? the King’s a bed.
He hath beene in unusuall Pleasure,
And sent forth great Largesse to your Offices.
This Diamond he greetes your Wife withall,
By the name of most kind Hostesse,
And shut up in measurelesse content.
And Yes, that’s Macbeth the ‘friend’, though we’d never know from the cue script until he spoke and Banquo recognised him. Or would we? The cue script I’m using tells me
Enter Macbeth, and a Servant with a Torch.
And normally i would have highlighted the dramatic irony of this friend who simultaneously is planning his friend’s murder. Because I have the whole script and can read Macbeth’s thoughts as closely as i do Banquo’s!
The amount of original professional early modern cue scripts we have to study are pretty much confined to one, Edward Alleyne’s. And he was a lead player. We have no smaller parts to study. And the truth of this statement needs to be tested. Nothing, remember, is certain when dealing with Early Modern Theatrical practice either.
We defer to the two of the leading experts of the 21stC moment Simon Palfrey and Tiffany Stern, Shakespeare in Parts chapter 1.
Go on, have a read of it.
Our next blog post will start to cover how many others are thinking about original practice.
And an online discussion can be followed on the Oxfraud fb page under Kim H Carrell’s Map and flashlight post. Kim has worked a number of Original Practice productions as an actor and fight director in the USA. His experiences will help us as we further explore this topic.
Tomorrow and tomorrow and tomorrow creeps Willy into English air space
to meet and workshop with some teachers from east sussex…
Nothing is fixed and certain when dealing with Shakespeare. Nothing. Keep that in mind as you read. Discovery is the key and although you would think all has been discovered, you might want to think again. Passion in Practice is re-thinking. Ben Crystal runs the Passion in Practice group and he will be bringing OP to the Globe this summer on 3 occasions in July 2014. Race to chase down a ticket the events are selling out.
The OP read not dead Macbeth is the last of the events, although this is not the first OP Macbeth since the 17thC. Bernard Miles did an OP production of Macbeth on 19th September, 1952. It wasn’t a critical success. Interesting but not enough, the review concluded. Obviously paid too much attention to the leading couple and not the play’s true protagonist, Banquo.
Like the anecdote about the actor from Streetcar named Desire who played the tiny doctor role, when asked what the play was about replied, a doctor called out to an emergency. Well Macbeth is about a man who should have been King but was murdered by his noble partner and supposed best friend. Or simply put: AMBITION. Or rather ambition thwarted. We know it is a tragedy and that means the title character will inevitably die.
In fact depending on how you date the plays, Makkers is the next to last tragedy Shakespeare wrote. Coriolanus is next up and he dies for lack of ambition and an Oedipal conflict if anything. Anthony and Cleo are also dated around the time and their deaths are very grown-up, middle-aged, star-crossed lovers.
Macbeth is also the shortest of the tragedies. It is said too that Middleton helped out with the Hecate scene. And so much said amounts to nothing when you find yourself having to learn a role. If you don’t know the story of Macbeth the following video will give you a good insight: here is Mitch Benn, who does a rap Macbeth in the style of Eminem. All the links open in new windows so you won’t lose your place here while you watch.
The plays also follow a structure and that is good to know something about if you are learning a character. Where and how do you fit into the narrative? Our friend Banquo who we will delve deeper into later is, as we saw from the first post, involved in Acts 1-4.
5 act structure:
Act I: Exposition or Introduction
Act II: Rising Action
Act III: Climax
Act IV: Falling Action
Act V: Dénoument or Resolution
The number of acts is fixed at five but the number of scenes in each act varies from play to play. And from quarto to Folio to subsequent editors. But we’re going meta, when we should be focusing inwards on the words. The actual words that Shakespeare wrote, or at least were published as Macbeth under that name, despite any potential collaborative bits.
Macbeth appeared in print in the First Folio 1623, almost 20 years after it was written, usually dated 1606. Written one supposes, due to the subject matter, for the coronation of King James 1st of England and 6th of Scotland. The parallels between James lineage as a member of the Stuart dynasty and his interests as a King are scattered throughout the play. And although Macbeth is a historical figure the play is a fiction. Nonetheless:
James was supposedly a descendant of Banquo the 8th in the STUART line.
James loved hunting.
James wrote a book about Witchcraft.
James believed in the Divine Right of Kings.
James survived many attempts on his life,
such as the Gunpowder Plot with Guy Fawkes.
First official record: by Simon Forman, who records seeing the play in April 1611.
First published: First Folio (1623) as The Tragedie of Macbeth
First recorded performance: possibly in April 1611, recorded by Simon Forman
Evidence: A reference to ‘dire combustion’ seems to allude to the Gunpowder Plot of 1606.
A palpable hit in Will’s Time! Or was it?
James was crowned in 1604. By 1606 his brother in law Christian, King of Denmark
visited his sister and her husband the new King of England.
They drink, they party, they see plays. Was this one of them?
Which is all very interesting but still not dealing with the words. A Jacobean actor (an actor in the time of James) would have gotten a roll of paper (his role), which contained all his cues and his speeches as well as his exits and entrances. It would have looked something like this, except it would have been handwritten in an italic or secretary hand.
Study this and the next post will pick up where we now leave off.
BANQUO’s cue script for Act 1, scene 3:
____________________________________ the Charme’s wound up.
Enter Macbeth and Banquo.
____________________________________ I have not seene.
How farre is’t call’d to Soris? What are these,
So wither’d, and so wilde in their attyre,
That looke not like th’Inhabitants o’th’Earth,
And yet are on’t? Live you, or are you aught
That man may question? you seeme to understand me,
By each at once her choppie finger laying
Upon her skinnie Lips: you should be Women,
And yet your Beards forbid me to interprete
That you are so.
____________________________________ be King hereafter.
Good Sir, why doe you start, and seeme to feare
Things that doe sound so faire? i’th’name of truth
Are ye fantasticall, or that indeed
Which outwardly ye shew? My Noble Partner
You greet with present Grace, and great prediction
Of Noble having, and of Royall hope,
That he seemes wrapt withall: to me you speake not.
If you can looke into the Seedes of Time,
And say, which Graine will grow, and which will not,
Speake then to me, who neyther begge, nor feare
Your favors, nor your hate.
____________________________________ Speake, I charge you.
The Earth hath bubbles, as the Water ha’s,
And these are of them: whither are they vanish’d?
____________________________________ Would they had stay’d.
Were such things here, as we doe speake about?
Or have we eaten on the insane Root,
That takes the Reason Prisoner?
____________________________________ Children shall be Kings.
You shall be King.
____________________________________ went it not so?
To th’selfe-same tune, and words: who’s here?
Enter Rosse and Angus.
____________________________________ For it is thine.
What, can the Devill speake true?
____________________________________ no lesse to them.
That trusted home,
Might yet enkindle you unto the Crowne,
Besides the Thane of Cawdor. But ’tis strange:
And oftentimes, to winne us to our harme,
The Instruments of Darknesse tell us Truths,
Winne us with honest Trifles, to betray’s
In deepest consequence.
Cousins, a word, I pray you.
____________________________________ but what is not.
Looke how our Partner’s rapt.
____________________________________ Without my stirre.
New Honors come upon him
Like our strange Garments, cleave not to their mould,
But with the aid of use.
____________________________________ the roughest Day.
Worthy Macbeth, wee stay upon your leysure.
____________________________________ each to other.
Next post will take us into the world of Jacobethan acting and the memorisation and rehearsal narratives we are fed.
The words first. Shakespeare second.
Character, as defined by the words.
MACBETH Male 715 lines
LADY Female 259 lines
MALCOLM Male 211 lines
MACDUFF Male 180 lines
ROSS Male 135 lines
BANQUO Male 113 lines
Banquo the warrior and king-maker, with his 6th largest speaking role, our focus
and his 113 spoken lines constituting the battlefield.
Original Practice means working with cue scripts and original pronunciation.
The cue scripts derive from the Friendly Folio series by Patrick Tucker and Christine Ozanne.
The original pronunciation derives from the world’s leading expert on OP, David Crystal.
So analysing my cue script I find:
12 four word cues lead into Banquo speaking in act 1 scene 3,
Then 1 cue in Act 1-scene 4,
And 1 cue in Act 1-scene 6.
Banquo speaks the first words followed by 7 short cues in Act 2 scene 1,
Then 3 cues in Act 2-scene 3.
Banquo speaks the first words comprising an actual soliloquy
followed by a further 5 cues to speak in Act 3 scene 1.
3 cues to speech and his untimely death in Act 3 scene 3.
Further 2 short spoken cues herald entrances of his speechless, gory-locked ghost in Act 3-scene 4.
Furthermost 1 final cue announces the entrance of his ghost, who punctuates the 8 generations of Kings he spawned.
That’s 34 speech cues in all.
(And not the 33 recorded in this link above, which misses his ‘Well Contented’ at the end of Act 2 scene 3.
Note to self remind the admin at the excellent resource Open Source Shakespeare, where you see the results of Banquo’s character speeches.
Or not, as that locution is assigned to All).
This series of blog posts will be about working within this realm of Original Practice.
The outcome will be a one day (sold out) performance at the indoor Sam Wanamaker playhouse
in Southwark’s outdoor Globe Theatre, on 20th July, 2014.
Excitement hardly contains what we feel about this project.